منــتديــات أبـــــواب المعرفة للتعلــــيم الأصيـــــــل
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 درس الانجليزية 04

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مُساهمةموضوع: درس الانجليزية 04   السبت أبريل 03, 2010 4:19 pm




UNIT 3: ADVANCES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

أهممفردات نصوص الصفحة 47 – الوحدة الثالثة-

Shape : to cause (something) to have a particular character or nature; form

تشكل

To be scientifically literate

أن تكون لك معرفةعلمية

To have well -reasoned views

أن تكون لك آراءمعقولة

To identify pseudo-scientific claims

التحقق من الادعاءاتالعلمية الزائفة

Literate citizens

مواطنينمتعلمين

Beneficial

نافع

Think critically

التفكير بشكلنقدي

---------------------------------

EXPRESSIONS OF PURPOSE

عبارات التعبير عن الغرض ص49

So / so as to / in order to

* We use so / so as to / in order to , to express purpose

Example

?A: Why did you call him

B: I called him in order to / so as to / to invite him

* The negatives are not to / in order not to / so as not to

Example

I called him not to congratulate him, but to invite him

------------------------

هنا تجدون نص الصفحة 50 من وحدة Advancesin Science and Technology

Insights into English: Text page 50

PART A:

Advancesin technology have changed the way we live and communicate, but no breakthroughhas revolutionized life as the advent of the « wireless ». In the 1980’s, telephones were stuck to walls. , facts were found in books and people had tobrowse shelves in a record store if they wanted to buy the latest music. Now, access to all of that and more is found by just reaching into our pockets. Withnew mobile technology and wireless technologies, information has become easilyaccessible. In the Information Age having immediate access to data isfundamental to progress. In some cases the advances are serving to overhaulindustries at a very fast pace. The internet has allowed music lovers to changethe way music industry does business. Text messaging over cell phones has madewritten communication more immediate. How many text messages have you senttoday? Having a com****r in almost every home was instrumental to this massivetechnology change. Now, having com****r access is available everywhere- well, almost everywhere. And just as com****r use worldwide is exploding, the brainsbehind them – the processors- are getting smaller. Today, a tiny com****r chipcan hold huge amounts of data. We can now store tons of information in a cellphone a digital camera and have them at our disposaleverywhere. When theinternet age dawned, the World Wide Web looked entirely unproblematic. Todayhowever, we face online scams and viruses

--xx--ingyour entertainmentexperience

Technological advances have also transformedthe entertainment industry. Satellite television and radio give us more choices. The development of the remote control allows us to access our preferredchannels. Video game technology has made great strides, too

Breakthrough = an important discovery orevent

The wireless was an important breakthrough inscience

حدث مهم

2- Fundamental = Important

Scientific research is fundamental to progress

مهم/ جوهري

3- Online scams: online fraud

Online scamis a major problem forinternet for online shoppers

عملية احتيال

4 - To make strides = to make headways/ to makeprogress

أن تحقق تقدما مهما

2

PART A:

Looking into thefuture

Manylife-changing innovations have been made in scientific laboratories. Researchershave decoded the genetic make-up of many organisms, which led to advances inbiotechnology, the science of manipulating and organism’s genetic material. DNAtesting and forensic science has made it extremely possible to reunite anunidentified baby with his parents after a natural disaster, for example. Amazing new technologies are changing the way crimes are investigated andsolved. Scientists are making headways in biometrics, which is the science ofdigitizing information such as fingerprints or facial features for accurateidentification

Making advances

Hybrid vehicles – thosevehicles that use at least two power sources, typically gasoline and electricitywill soon be on the market everywhere. The compact fluorescent light bulb is low -tech. Yet, it has revolutionized the quality of life. It is one of the mostsuccessful energy- saving devices developed to date. There are advances ineverything. From banking to shopping to investing, technology and the internetare transforming the way we conduct our global banking and financing. Bankcustomers can see everything from their checking account and savings account tohome mortgages and credit cards. Now they can do all of that 24 hours a day, seven days a week from their own homes. Breakthroughs in defense technologychanged the face of warfare. Smart bombs are guided to their targets bysatellites. Robots are used to disarm bombs. Laser technology is applied inmedicine and CD and DVD recording and playback. In space exploration, unmannedspacecraft have landed on Mars. The sky’s the limit for new technologyindustries!!

الأجوبة على أسئلة النص

For instance= forexample

To make headways= tomake progress

Biometrics= scienceof digitizing information

Hybrid vehicles= avehicle that uses two sources of power; gasoline andelectricity

Home mortgages= agreement that allows you to borrow money from a bank to buy ahouse

قرض عقاري

Text Col********s page 50

Part A

Col********s

Col********sare: the way in which somewords are used

together

For example: commit a crime

في الإنجليزية هناك كلمات تأتي دائما في الكلام مع بعضها البعض وتسمى col********

اليوم ندرس بعض من هذه الكلمات التي

في نص ص 50 من كتاب

Insights Into English

Verb+adjective+ noun

Adjective + Noun

Noun+Noun

Adverb+ Adjective

-To have immediate access

-To have com****r access

-To make great strides

-Wireless world

-Mobile technology

-Digital camera

-Online scams

-Technological advances

-The remote control

-Record store

-The information age

-Music industry

-Music lovers

-Entertainment industry

-Satellite television

-Easily accessible
--------------------------------

Part B

Verb+adjective+ noun

Adjective + Noun

Noun+Noun

Adverb+ Adjective

- to make extremely possible

-to make headways

-life-changing innovations

-scientific laboratories

- forensic science

-natural disaster

- -hybrid vehicles

-- facial features

- unmanned spacecraft

-power sources

-bank customers

-savings account

-credit cards

-home mortgages

-defence technology

-smart bombs

-laser technology

الشروحات

To have immediate access

أن يكون لك حق استعمال شيء بشكل فوري

EX/ Thanks to the internet, people have immediate access to data

To have com****r access

أن يكون لك حق استعمال الإنترنيت

EX/Most young people have com****r access in their cities

To make great strides

أن تحرز تقدما مهما

EX/ Scientists made great strides in technological sciences

Wireless world

عالم ألاسلكي

EX/They made great strides in wireless world technology

Scientific laboratories

المختبرات العلمية

Digital camera

الكاميرا الرقمية

Forensic science

العلم الشرعي

EX/ Great advances have been made in Forensic sciences

Online scams

عمليات احتيال على الإنترنيت

Natural disaster

كارثة طبيعية

EX/ The Tsunami in Asia was a major Natural disaster

Technological advances

التطورات التكنولوجية

The remote control

التحكم عن بعد

Record store

محل الأسطوانات الموسيقية

The information age

عصر المعلومات

EX/ The 21 st century is an information age century

Entertainment industry

صناعة التسلية

EX/ World Disney is an example of entertainment industry

Easily accessible

يمكن الوصول إليه بسهولة

EX/ With satellite TV watching films is easily accessible

To make extremely possible

أن تجعل الشيء ممكنا لأبعد الحدود

EX/ The internet has made it extremely possible for students to access information

To make headways

أن تحرز تقدما كبيرا

Life-changing innovations

ابتكارات تغير الحياة

Unmanned spacecraft

مركبة بدون طيار

Savings account

حساب المدخرات

Defence technology

تكنولوجيا الدفاع

Smart bombs

القنابل الذكية

Laser technology

تكنولوجيا الليزر

Making Complaints about behaviour

:There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English

هناك العديد من العبارات نستعملها لنشتكي من سلوك أحد أو الرد على الشكوى

التشكي من سلوكأحد

• I'm sorry to have to say this but...

• I'm sorry to bother you, but...

• Maybe you forgot to...

• I hate to mention this but …

• Would you please stop …

الرد على الشكوى

• I'm very sorry .

• I’m terribly sorry

• I’m awfully sorry

• I see no reason why I should do/stop……

:Examples

أمثلة

- Complaint: I am sorry to have to say that but you are making too much noise in the room

- Response: I’ m terribly sorry

- Complaint: I hate to mention this but you are always late for work

- Response: I see no reason why I should come early while all the clerks come late, too.
-------------------
درسLetter of complaint :writing

رسالة تشكي حول شيء اشتريته ووجدتبه خلل

Dear Sir or Madam,

On 23 d of April this year I bought an HP pentuim4 com****r with the serial 410 workstation at your com****r store

Unfortunately, your com****r has not performed well because it keeps shutting itself down and the keyboard remains inactive. I am disappointed because the product does not work properly

To resolve the problem, I would appreciate that you send someone to help repair the above mentioned com****r or else be sent my money back. Enclosed are copies of the guarantee, as well as the com****r bill price

I look forward to your reply and a resolution to my problem, and will wait until the end of this week before seeking help from a consumer protection agency or the Better Business Bureau. Please contact me at the above address or by phone at home

Sincerely,

Your name
-------------------------------

درس الصفحة 56

Modals: Expressing degrees of certainty

الأفعال المساعدة للتعبير عن درجة اليقينية/ التأكد

"Degree of certainty" refers to how sure we are-what we think the chances are-that something is true. If we are sure that something is true in the present, we do not need to use a modal. For example, if I say, "Martha is sick," I am sure; I am stating a fact that I am sure. My degree of certainty here is 100%. If I am asked "Why isn't Martha in class?" and I am not sure of the reason, I can respond in the following ways:

للتعبير عن مدى أو درجة التأكد أو اليقينية في فعل شيء ما نستعمل عدة عبارات مع أفعال مساعدة. و فيما يلي أمثلة على ذلك

1She must be sick.

Here, I am 95% sure that she is (not 100%)

تفيد التأكد بنسبة 95 في المئة Must

2She may be sick.

Here, I am 50% sure that she is

تفيد التأكد بنسبة 50 في المئة May

3She might be sick.

Here, I am less than 50% sure that she is

تفيد التأكد بنسبة أقل من 50 في المئة Might

4She could be sick.

Here, I am stating a mere guess. This is a very weak degree of certainty

أنا فقط أقدم افتراض أي أن درجة التأكد ضعيفة Could

The Negative

أسلوب النفي


Forming such sentences in the negative can be confusing. Read these sentences

Maria is not hungry.

I am 100% sure that she is not hungry.

كما في المثال فأنا متأكد مئة في المئة Verb to be عندما أستعمل

I don't know why Maria is not eating with us. She may

not (or might not) be hungry.

I am 50% or less certain that she is not hungry.

May not/ might not تفيد التأكد بنسبة 50 بالمئة

Maria cannot be hungry. She has just had diner.

Here, I believe that there is no possibility that Maria is hungry, but I am not 100% sure.

أعبر عن انعدام الإمكانية Can not هنا مع

Maria is not eating. She must not be hungry.

Here, I am expressing a logical conclusion, a best guess.

أعبر عن استنتاج منطقي ومعقول Must not هنا مع

إذا أردنا التعبير عن درجة من التأكد في الماضي يجب استعمال الصيغ التالية

Modal verb + have + past participle

Examples

Maria didn’t attend the meeting. She must have been sick

لا حظ عندما أغير الجملة للمضارع the present

Maria doesn’t attend the meeting. She must be sick

أي أننا نستعمل فقط الفعل المساعد المناسب

Could in the past

Could ماضي

Could is used to express ability in the past. Here it is

لتعبير عن القدرة على القيام بشيء في الماضي Could تستعمل

For example: My girlfriend could lift the desk, but I could not.

--- This means that my girlfriend was able to lift the desk, but I was unable to.

I could play football when I was a kid.
--------------------------
Phrasal verbs
الأفعال العبارية

صفحة 56

Phrasal verbs أو الأفعال العبارية هي الأفعال التي تتكون من فعل + حرف جر

مثل Go up , Get along, keep on

اليوم سنرى بعض الأفعال العبارية المدرجة في الوحدة الثانية من كتاب

IntoEnglishInsights

مع حروف الجر Up, down , along, across, on

Up: for increasing

تفيد الزيادة في الشيء

:Ex

Prices have gone up

Up: for completion

تفيد إنهاء شيئ ما

:Ex

!Drink your milk up

Down: for decreasing

تفيد النقصان

:Ex

Prices have come down

Up and Down: for excitement interest and happiness

يفيداني الإثارة والإهتمام والفرح

:Ex

Calm down

!Cheer up. Life is too short to be so unhappy

Along: for relationships

تفيد العلاقة

:Ex

I get along with my classmates

Across: so as to be understood or learned

تفيد الإيصال والإفهام

Ex:

He couldn’tgetthe ideaacrosstothe students

On: for progress

تفيد الصيرورة والإستمرار

:Ex

The work is good. Just keep on



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